In their short leader for the British Journal of Sports Medicine, A. Scott et alia ask a question  that has puzzled me throughout my graduate career. I have yet to come across a satisfactory definition of inflammation, the answer sooner or later coming to rest at a point of tautology; there exists a hundred… Read More A Paper a Day Keeps the Doctorate Away: What is Inflammation? Are We Ready to Move Beyond Celsus?
After establishing an hypothesis, it ought to be put it to the test. Outside of novel experimentation, currently preferred to justify salary and materials budgets, you can apply your ideas to previous experiments and see how they fit. While reading on mechanisms for PUFA inhibition of SREBP-1, I came across a few papers that serve… Read More Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Activators of Specific Receptors or Inhibitors of Proteolysis? Part 4 – Supporting Documents
Toll-like receptors (TLR) are a family of proteins generally thought to recognize molecules of microbial origin and, subsequent this recognition, initiate an immune response. Related to the interleukin-1 receptors, TLRs stimulate production of the usual suspects of inflammatory cytokines, predominantly through transcription and activation of NF-κB. Interest in this receptor family increased when it was… Read More A Paper a Day Keeps the Doctorate Away: Saturated Fatty Acids Do Not Directly Stimulate Toll-Like Receptor Signaling
Polyunsaturated fatty acids were/are considered heart healthy on the basis of their ability to lower circulating LDL. The currently dominant ideas on mechanism center on receptors, and so PUFA’s effects are described in those terms. Lowering LDL is considered the action of the PPAR receptors, which are associated with lipid metabolism. The relevant transcriptional targets… Read More Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Activators of Specific Receptors or Inhibitors of Proteolysis? Part 3
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a surging, would-be fashionable diagnosis save for the shadow cast over it by enormous academic and popular interest in probiotics. These 2 terms are not necessarily at odds, having overlapping but not entirely contradictory components, but it appears that both the academic and popular imaginations have room for only… Read More A Paper a Day Keeps the Doctorate Away: Herbal Therapy is Equivalent to Rifaximin for the Treatment of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth
Specific receptor biology is challenged by the continual discovery of multiple ligands per receptor and vice versa. In order to preserve the ligand/receptor theory the convention has been to describe these discoveries as exceptions or extensions, rather than falsifications, of it. This begs the question: how many ligands must be shown to activate a receptor until it… Read More Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Activators of Specific Receptors or Inhibitors of Proteolysis? Part 2
The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been shown, similar to other nutrients, to exhibit an endocrinological role in addition to their energy substrate one. The most famous effect of PUFA is to reduce circulating LDL, the so-called bad cholesterol. This effect is proposed to occur through interaction with receptor molecules, which initiate a cascade of… Read More Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Activators of Specific Receptors or Inhibitors of Proteolysis? Part 1
The so-called obesity epidemic that began during the 20th century has many competing theoretical explanations. Although some are sociocultural in nature most of the ideas focus on nutrition. The 20th century was a time of great nutritional change; which of these changes might have increased obesity rates? Fashionable opinion has oscillated between carbohydrates (specifically simple sugars) and… Read More Changes in Nutrition and the “Obesity Epidemic” (Space Alien Epidemiology)